FOR MEDICAL COMMUNITY

KyberBiom® - the intelligent microbiome diagnostics

The KyberBiom® diagnostics record the resilience of the intestinal microbiota for the first time. With the detection of key organisms from seven functional groups of the microbiota, diagnostics enables the detection of disturbances in the microbial balance.

This gives indications of chronic illnesses, sometimes even in the very early stages. In addition, with the help of diagnostics, the effects of the disturbances on the immune system, the mucous membrane and various metabolic processes can be estimated.

The KyberBiom® diagnostics also determine the FODMAP type via the composition of the microbiota and thus provide information as to whether a low or modified FODMAP diet can relieve a patient's irritable bowel symptoms.

The KyberBiom® diagnostics extend the KyberKompaktPRO by the following aspects:

  • Resilience Index
  • FODMAP type
  • Fiber-degrading Microbiota
  • Neuroactive Microbiota

The KyberBiom® diagnostics use the known parameters of the KyberKompaktPRO:

  • Immunomodulating microbiota
  • Protective microbiota
  • Muco-nutritive microbiota
  • Proteolytic microbiota
  • Facultatively pathogenic yeasts and molds
  • Total cell count
  • pH of the stool
  • Stool consistency

Indications of the KyberBiom® diagnostics:

  • Abdominal complaints such as irritable bowel syndrome, constipation, meteorism and diarrhea
  • Atopic diseases such as atopic eczema, pollinosis and bronchial asthma
  • Food intolerance and allergies
  • Inflammatory bowel diseases
  • Chronic recurrent infections

Resilience Index

For the first time, we are able to determine a resilience index of the intestinal microbiota. The term "resilience" originates from psychology and refers to the ability to fall back on personal resources in a crisis and thus handle the crisis.

Other disciplines such as ecology have adapted the term meanwhile. There, resilience describes the ability of an ecosystem to respond to disturbances and to renew itself without fundamentally changing.

The resilience index of the KyberBiom® diagnostics detects the ecological status of the microbiota. This is an indicator for the ability of the microbiota to cope with disturbances.

  • In case the index is high, the microbiota can sustain essential structures and functions despite damaging impacts.
  • With a low resilience index, however, the ecology of the microbiota is disturbed and damaging stimuli can quickly lead to clinical symptoms.

To calculate the resilience index, the KyberBiom® covers a wide range of functional groups. In addition to the microbial groups of KyberKompaktPRO, KyberBiom® includes the fiber-degrading and neuro-active microbiota.



FODMAP type

KyberBiom® reveals another highly therapeutically relevant feature of the microbiota: the FODMAP type.

A FODMAP-poor diet may be recommended if a patient suffers from conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, flatulence and altered bowel movements. FODMAPs are sugars and polyoles for which no suitable digestive enzymes or transport systems exist within the gut. This includes:

  • Fermentable oligosaccharides such as galacto-oligosaccharides, stachyose and raffinose
  • Disaccharides such as lactose
  • Monosaccharides such as fructose and
  • Polyols such as sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol and maltitol

Since the sugars are not digested, they pass unchanged into the colon. There, the sugars act osmotically: water streaming into the intestinal lumen dilutes the stool and speeds up the intestinal passage. At the same time, the bacteria produce gases by fermenting sugars. This increases the pressure on the intestinal wall and causes pain.

During a FODMAP diet, foods with a high FODMAP content are initially completely removed from the diet. However, it depends on the composition of the microbiota whether a patient benefits from the diet. [1]

In patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome a low-FODMAP diet is promising, if they are FODMAP type 3. In patients with FODMAP Type 1 however, a diet low in FODMAPs is not indicated.

FODMAP type 1: Foods with FODMAPs are generally well tolerated. -> A FODMAP-poor diet brings no relief in irritable bowel problems.

FODMAP type 2: Foods with FODMAPs are tolerable to a small extent. -> A FODMAP-poor diet should be attempted.

FODMAP type 3: Foods with FODMAPs should be avoided. -> A FODMAP-poor diet is indicated for relieving the symptoms.


Fiber-degrading microbiota

The fiber-degrading microbiota supports the muko-nutritive microbiota by breaking up complex carbohydrates. If impaired, it increases the risk of many civilization diseases such as metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Rumincoccus bromii are key bacteria of the fiber-degrading microbiota.

The human digestive enzymes are not able to break down complex fibers. Passing through the gastrointestinal tract, fiber increases the chyme, lowers its energy density and lowers the blood sugar level after a meal. The larger intestinal content increases the pressure on the intestinal wall which stimulates peristalsis. However, only the intestinal bacteria provide the full health-promoting effect of dietary fibers. They metabolize fibers and produce the mucosa supporting nutrient butyric acid.

Especially the fibers resistant starch and oligofructose are fermented to butyric acid. Resistant starch helps to reduce insulin resistance, to control infectious diarrhea and to prevent colorectal carcinoma. [2]
In primary degradation of resistant starch and oligofructose, Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Rumincoccus bromii occupy a key position. Bifidobacterium adolescentis cleaves the short side chains of the polysaccharides and forms acetic acid and lactic acid. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii relies on acetic acid to break down oligosaccharides and produce butyric acid from them. [3]
Furthermore, Ruminococcus bromii is a key degrader of fibres within the human gut and accounts for about three to five percent of the total microbiota in healthy individuals.

If the fiber-degrading microbiota is reduced, the degradation of the polysaccharides in the intestine is diminished. This reduces the nutrient availability for Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and hence its production of butyric acid. Therefore, it is useful to supply bifidobacteria or to support their growth to strengthen Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. [4]

The microbiome and the impoverishment of species

With the understanding of the importance of the microbiota the knowledge grows how much the microbial community is threatened by our way of life today...


Neuro-active microbiota

The neuro-active microbiota produces γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which acts via intestinal receptors on the gut-brain axis, the immune system and the visceral pain sensation.

The neuro-active microbiota includes the key bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Bifidobacterium adolescentis. Thus, Bifidobacterium adolescentis performs a second important function in addition to fibre degradation. Many strains of both bacterial species produce the neurologically active substance γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)in large quantities. [5] When humans and microbes produce the same neuroactive substances, they form a kind of common language that enables communication between them.

GABA receptors are widely distributed within the gastrointestinal tract. [6] The neuroactive microbiota may therefore activate the intestinal brain axis in two ways. The neurons of the enteric nervous system (ENS) recognize bacterially produced and orally ingested GABA via the receptors and transmit corresponding impulses via the vagus nerve to the brain.

In addition, the intestinal epithelium absorbs GABA into the blood, which transports the substance to the blood-brain barrier. Recent studies have shown that small amounts of GABA cross the blood-brain barrier. [7] Thus, enteral GABA can directly assist the anxiolytic, antidepressant effect of cerebrally produced GABA.

The neuro-active microbiota is an important modulator of the gut-brain axis and it can mediate health-promoting effects via gut-derived GABA. GABA receptors may be found on many immune cells such as dendritic cells, mast cells and T cells. Thus, GABA is also involved in the regulation of immune processes. For example, by downregulating the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
In addition, GABA acts directly in the gut: it can affect gut motility and reduce visceral pain. [6]

The enteral GABA:

  • has a soothing effect
  • affects the immune system
  • lowers blood pressure
  • acts anti-diabetogenic
  • improves learning and memory [8]

Therapeutic consequences

When numbers of keystone bacteria in functional groups are diminished, it is possible to take countermeasures.

These include:

  • a diet promoting keystone bacteria
  • ingestion of prebiotic substances to stimulate bacterial growth
  • administration of probiotic supplements and drugs
  • ingestion of butyric acid for mucosal nutrition.